Plant propagation is the branch of horticulture which deals with the deliberate (or intentional) production of new plants using various starter materials, including their intensive but temporary care. It is primarily practiced to produce seedlings or clones of plants for planting in containers for display or décor or other uses.
To understand the science of why, when, and how to propagate requires basic knowledge of plant growth and development, plant anatomy and morphology, and plant physiology.
In general, there are two methods of propagating plumeria: sexual and asexual.
Sexual propagation is with the use of seeds that is separated from the parent plumeria. This method is so termed "sexual" because there is the involvement of the sexes, referring to the contribution of both the male and female gametes in the production of new plants. Plumeria have both female and male parts, so all plumeria which are propagated by seed are not sexually reproduced. Plumeria can produce apomictic seeds. Apomixis is the production of seeds without sexual union.
The propagated plumeria therefore has a genotype which results from combining those which originate from the parental sources of male and female gametes. Consequently, the resulting plumeria may exhibit either, or somewhat different, or a combination of parental characteristics.
The young plumeria that is produced from seed is called seedling. Seedling is used as a general term to refer to any young plumeria grown from seed up until the time it blooms and/or is named. A seedling is considered mature after the third bloom cycle.
There are several advantages of sexual propagation:
- It may result in new cultivars and vigorous hybrids.
- It provides a way to avoid transmission of particular diseases, such as viruses.
- It maintains genetic variation, which increases the potential for plants to adapt to environmental pressures.
Asexual propagation, also called vegetative propagation, is with the use of planting materials which are vegetative parts of any plant rather than seeds or spores which are reproductive parts. In most techniques, the propagule is separated first from the parent plumeria and treated to induce regeneration or otherwise directly planted.
Tissue culture, also called in vitro culture and micropropagation, is the technique of propagating plants indoor under aseptic or sterile conditions in artificial growth media. The growth medium, also called nutrient solution, is a mixture of essential elements. The initial propagule in tissue culture is called explant.
Propagation from Seeds
Propagation from Cuttings
Propagation by Layering
Propagation by Budding and Grafting